Energy storage systems can achieve energy transfer, promote the application of new energy; can establish microgrids to provide electricity for areas without electricity; can peak load regulation, improve the stability of the power system. Battery energy storage systems have significant strategic significance for the construction of smart grids. The ways of energy storage include: battery energy storage, inductor energy storage, capacitor energy storage and other types of energy storage.
Battery energy storage system (BESS) is a system that uses lithium batteries/lead-acid batteries as energy storage carriers to store and supply electrical energy within a certain period of time, and the provided electrical energy has functions such as smooth transition, peak shaving, frequency regulation, and voltage regulation.
Inductor energy storage: it is itself an energy storage element, and the stored electrical energy is proportional to its own inductance and the square of the current passing through it: E = L*I*I/2. Since the inductor has resistance at room temperature, the resistance consumes energy, so many energy storage technologies use superconductors. Inductor energy storage is still immature and has relatively few applications;
Capacitor energy storage: it is also an energy storage element, and the stored electrical energy is proportional to its own capacitance and the square of the terminal voltage: E = C*U*U/2. Capacitor energy storage is easy to maintain and does not require superconductors. Supercapacitors are generated based on the characteristics of capacitor energy storage providing instantaneous high power, suitable for applications such as lasers and flashlights. How is energy stored? In addition, there are other energy storage methods, such as mechanical energy storage. Including energy storage, photovoltaic, hydropower, etc., energy storage systems are the core components of microgrids, often used in conjunction with photovoltaics, wind power, etc.
Due to the relatively mature technology, large capacity, safety and reliability, low noise, strong environmental adaptability, and ease of installation of battery energy storage, energy storage systems commonly use batteries to store electrical energy. How is energy stored? Currently, energy storage systems are mainly composed of energy storage units and monitoring and scheduling management units: energy storage units include energy storage battery groups (BA), battery management systems (BMS), energy storage inverters (PCS), etc.; monitoring and scheduling management units include central control systems (MGCC), energy management systems (EMS), etc. The commonly used application modes are: energy-type energy storage systems, power-type energy storage systems, grid-level energy storage systems, commercial energy storage systems, residential energy storage systems, etc.