An energy storage system is a system that can store and supply electrical energy, with functions such as smooth transition, peak shaving, frequency and voltage regulation, etc. It can smooth out the output of solar and wind energy generation, reduce the impact of its randomness, intermittency, and volatility on the power grid and users. Charging during off-peak hours and discharging during peak hours can reduce users' electricity expenses. It can operate independently when the main power grid is down, ensuring uninterrupted power supply to users, and enabling the operation of microgrids.
A microgrid system architecture includes energy storage, photovoltaics, wind turbines, etc. Energy storage systems are the core components of microgrids and are often used in conjunction with photovoltaics, wind power, etc. Battery energy storage is commonly used to store electricity due to its relatively mature technology, large capacity, safety and reliability, low noise, strong environmental adaptability, and easy installation. Currently, energy storage systems mainly consist of energy storage units and monitoring and dispatch management units. The energy storage unit includes energy storage batteries (BA), battery management systems (BMS), energy storage inverters (PCS), etc. The monitoring and dispatch management unit includes central control systems (MGCC), energy management systems (EMS), etc.
How to store energy? An solar energy storage system includes the input and output of energy and matter, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Energy storage systems often involve multiple types of energy, devices, materials, and processes. They are complex energy systems that change over time and require multiple indicators to describe their performance. Common evaluation indicators include energy storage density, energy storage power, energy storage efficiency, energy storage prices, and environmental impact.
How to store energy? Energy storage systems can store excess heat energy, kinetic energy, electrical energy, potential energy, chemical energy, etc., and change the output capacity, output location, and output time of energy. How to store energy? Currently, energy storage technology research, development, and application focus on storing thermal energy and electrical energy, which are widely used in solar energy utilization, peak shaving of electricity, waste heat recovery, as well as energy saving in industrial and civil buildings and air conditioning. Thermal energy storage is the process of storing excess heat energy that is not needed temporarily during a certain period of time and extracting it for use when needed. The technology of energy storage systems mainly includes control of energy storage inverters, management of energy storage batteries, and the rational energy dispatch by monitoring and dispatch management units. It includes sensible heat storage technology, latent heat storage technology, and chemical reaction heat storage technology.